Review Game Q & A

Universe Review Questions

1. What is the most widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe?

2. What is a distance unit used for interstellar distances?

3. What is another interstellar distance unit that = 3.26 ly?

4. What is the only way to directly measure distances to stars?

5. What are the 4 basic things that the universe is made of?

6. Which of the 4 basic things is most abundant?

7. What is the approximate percentage of the universe made of ordinary matter?

8. What is a measure of a star’s true brightness, where sun has a value of 1 and other stars are compared to it?

9. Compare the parallax shift of close and farther-away stars.

10. What are stars that vary regularly in brightness and are used as distance indicators?

11. How are 90% of all stars grouped on an H-R diagram (name the group)?

12. Quasi-stellar radio sources are aka what?

13. Name the 4 basic galaxy types.

14. What is a measure of a star’s true brightness other than luminosity?

15. What is the explosion of a large star called?

16. What theory would be supported by an increasing number of blueshifted galaxies in the distant future?

17. What are the most distant objects known?

18. What is the theory that states that the universe is repeatedly expanding and contracting?

19. If a red, a yellow, and a blue star are all the same size, which is brightest, and which is dimmest?

20. What is a measure of how bright stars appear from Earth?

21. Why does parallax not work for distant stars (over 1600 ly)?

22. Who determined that the universe is expanding?

23. What baked item can be used to describe the evolution of the universe?

24. Name an irregular galaxy that can be seen from Earth without a telescope.

25. What type of galaxy is the Milky Way thought to be?

26. What is the most common type of galaxy?

27. What is a device used to determine temperature and composition of stars by their color?

28. Name a spiral galaxy that can be seen from Earth without a telescope (other than the Milky Way).

29. What term that we discussed in class means to go back and forth repeatedly?

30. What kind of star could be described as oscillating?

31. If two Cepheid variables appear to be the same brightness, how could you tell which was farther away?

32. If the pitch of a whistling bomb is rising, are you dropping the bomb or is it being dropped on you?

33. What term is used for any object of known brightness that is used as a distance indicator?

34. Which is brighter, a star with magnitude 15, 5, or -1?

35. What do most large galaxies seem to have in their centers?

36. The distance to nearby Cepheid variables had to be known before the period/brightness relationship could be determined. How were the distances to those nearby Cepheids measured?

37. A yellow, a red, and a blue main sequence stars all appear the same brightness. Which one is farthest and which is closest?

38. What is the CMB?

39. The twin paradox is based on the theoretical work of what scientist?

40. What are objects of known brightness that are used as distance indicators are generally called?

41. What is one example of a standard candle?

42. What is another example of a standard candle?

43. How do we know red giants are large?

44. What does it mean if a blue main sequence star appears dim?

45. Describe stars that would be plotted in the upper left quarter of the H-R diagram.

46. How could you easily tell a young star cluster from an old one?

47. Describe the stars in a binary system that would lead to a type IA supernova.

48. Why are type IA supernovae all about the same brightness?

 

Universe Review Answers

1. The Big Bang theory.

2. Light-year.

3. Parsec.

4. Parallax.

5. Matter, energy, dark matter, dark energy.

6. Dark energy.

7. About 5%.

8. Luminosity.

9. The closer the star, the greater the shift.

10. Cepheid variables.

11. Main sequence.

12. Quasars.

13. Elliptical, spiral, barred spiral, and irregular.

14. Absolute magnitude.

15. Supernova.

16. Oscillating universe theory.

17. Quasars.

18. Oscillating universe theory.

19. Blue would be brightest, red would be dimmest.

20. Apparent magnitude.

21. The shift would be too small to measure with current instruments.

22. Edwin Hubble.

23. Raisin bread.

24. Large or Small Magellenic Cloud.

25. Barred spiral.

26. Irregular.

27. Spectroscope or spectrometer.

28. Andromeda.

29. Oscillation.

30. Cepheid variable.

31. The one with the longer period is farther because it is actually a brighter star.

32. It’s being dropped on you.

33. Standard candle.

34. -1

35. Supermassive black hole.

36. Parallax

37. Red is closest, blue farthest.

39. Albert Einstein

38. Cosmic microwave background, the light from the Big Bang.

40. Standard candles.

41. Cepheid variables, main sequence stars, type IA supernovae, redshift of distant galaxies

42. (see 41 above)

43. Red is a low-energy, dim color, so there has to be a lot of it to make it bright.

44. Since it must be truly bright, it must be far away to appear dim.

45. Hot and bright.

46. The young one would have more big, blue stars, the older one would have more red giants and white dwarfs.

47. One would be a red giant, the other a white dwarf.

48. They all explode just when they build up to the same mass (1.4 solar masses).


Key to Universe Review Slides

(see Docs and Links to view slides)

1. cosmic microwave background

2. barred spiral galaxy

3. cosmic microwave background

4. C

5. elliptical galaxy

6. Type IA supernova

7. Cepheid variable

8. irregular galaxy

9. supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*

10. E

11. Short cycle Cepheids are naturally dim, regardless of distance. Those that are close look sort of bright, but others are far away and those look really dim from here. Both short and long Cepheids are scattered throughout the universe, some are near, some are far.

12. D

13. spiral galaxy

14. globular cluster

15. barred spiral galaxy

16. B

17. spiral galaxy

18. These stars may actually be bright, but they don’t always look bright because sometimes they’re far away.

19. elliptical galaxy

20. irregular galaxy

21. spiral galaxy

22. elliptical galaxy

23. barred spiral galaxy

24. irregular galaxy

25. galaxies are colliding

26. irregular galaxy

27. gravitational lensing

28. spiral galaxy

29. barred spiral galaxy

30. 2 trillion

31. elliptical galaxy with plasma jet from supermassive black hole in its core

32. Most stars are too far away to actually see their size. Even the largest red giants appear as points of light from here. The reason we know red giants are large is that red is a dim color, yet red giants are bright, so there must be lots of red. Lots of red can only come from a star with a large surface area. Small, red main sequence stars are very dim. Switch the words bright and large, and the statement makes sense.

33. barred spiral galaxy

34. Edwin Hubble

35. White dwarfs are naturally dim, regardless of distance. Those that are close look sort of bright, but others are far away and those look really dim from here. White dwarfs are scattered throughout the universe, some are near, some are far.


Final Exam 2018 Review Game Questions

  1. Which layer of the sun is the hottest?
  2. Which layer of the sun is the most dense?
  3. What layer of the sun do we usually see?
  4. What layer of the sun glows red and has spicules?
  5. What does EMR stand for?
  6. All EMR travels through space in the form of __.
  7. Compare the speed of gamma rays to the speed of radio waves.
  8. What is the top of a wave called?
  9. The distance between one wave crest and the next is called what?
  10. Describe stars that would be plotted in the upper left quarter of the H-R diagram.
  11. How could you easily tell a young star cluster from an old one?
  12. Describe the stars in a binary system that would lead to a type IA supernova.
  13. Why are type IA supernovae all about the same brightness?
  14. What are NEO’s?
  15. Describe a comet when it’s far from the sun.
  16. What is a comet’s coma?
  17. What determines the direction of a comet’s tail?
  18. A yellow, a red, and a blue main sequence stars all appear the same brightness. Which one is farthest and which is closest?
  19. What is the CMB?
  20. The twin paradox is based on the theoretical work of what scientist?
  21. What are objects of known brightness that are used as distance indicators are generally called?
  22. Approximately how many times does the moon revolve around the Earth each year?
  23. What caused the moon’s craters?
  24. Why does the moon have so many large meteorite impact craters while the Earth, a larger target with greater gravity, has so few (2 reasons)?
  25. Why is the temperature range on the moon so extreme compared with Earth (2 reasons)?
  26. The number of wave crests that pass a given point in 1 second is called what?
  27. What happens to frequency as wavelength gets longer?
  28. Which has a longer wavelength, visible light or radio waves?
  29. What is an interstellar distance unit that = 3.26 ly?
  30. What is the only way to directly measure distances to stars?
  31. What are the 4 basic things that the universe is made of?
  32. Which of the 4 basic things is most abundant?
  33. What is the approximate percentage of the universe made of ordinary matter?
  34. Which has a longer wavelength, gamma waves or ultraviolet?
  35. Which has a longer wavelength, red light or blue light?
  36. What layer of the sun is farthest from the core?
  37. Why are sunspots darker than the rest of the photosphere?
  38. What are huge loops of plasma extending from one sunspot to another called?
  39. What causes prominences to be loop-shaped?
  40. What solar surface feature shows that the convective zone is convecting just under the photosphere?
  41. Why are there so few impact craters on Io?
  42. Why is Io so volcanic?
  43. Where are most comets located?
  44. What is a measure of a star’s true brightness, where sun has a value of 1 and other stars are compared to it?
  45. Compare the parallax shift of close and farther-away stars.
  46. What are stars that vary regularly in brightness and are used as distance indicators?
  47. How are 90% of all stars grouped on an H-R diagram (name the group)?
  48. Quasi-stellar radio sources are aka what?
  49. Name the 4 basic galaxy types.
  50. Where are most asteroids located?
  51. What are the 2 parts of every shadow, and which is darker?
  52. What type of eclipse would be seen if the moon was in the Earth’s umbra?
  53. What type of eclipse would be seen on the part of Earth that was in the moon’s penumbra?
  54. What 2 things cause tides?
  55. What is the advantage of placing the Hubble space telescope in orbit?
  56. What are telescopes that use a mirror to gather and focus light called?
  57. What are telescopes that use a lens to gather and focus light called?
  58. What is the purpose of the eyepiece lens in a telescope?
  59. Where is the sun’s energy produced?
  60. How many Earths would fit inside the sun?
  61. Which constellation is The Archer?
  62. Which constellation is a musical instrument?
  63. Which constellation is the Big Dog?
  64. What is one more important difference between inner and outer planets?
  65. What is one way a nearby supernova may have influenced the beginning of our solar system?
  66. What force caused the solar nebula to collapse?
  67. As the spinning solar nebula collapsed, what happened to its shape?
  68. Which layer of the sun is the coolest?
  69. Which layer of the sun moves like a lava lamp?
  70. Which layer of the sun has the random walk of photons?
  71. What is one example of a standard candle?
  72. What is another example of a standard candle?
  73. How do we know red giants are large?
  74. What does it mean if a blue main sequence star appears dim?
  75. How did planetesimals form in the disk around the protosun?
  76. What is the most obvious evidence that shows that the planets and moons grew by attracting smaller bodies onto their surfaces?
  77. What caused the inner and outer planets to be different in composition?
  78. What is chromatic aberration?
  79. What is a spectrometer used for?
  80. What is the diameter of a telescope’s objective lens or mirror called?
  81. The ability of a telescope to distinguish between two nearby objects is called what?
  82. What do all satellites do?
  83. Name the hottest planet.
  84. Name the brightest planet, as seen from Earth (not including Earth!).
  85. Name the planet that has the largest moon, compared to its own size, than any other planet.
  86. What’s the name of Pluto’s largest moon?
  87. Which planet has the greatest temperature range?
  88. What is an object so massive and dense that not even light escapes it?
  89. What is the sun’s final stage going to be?
  90. What are the most distant objects known?
  91. If a red, a yellow, and a blue star are all the same size, which is brightest, and which is dimmest?
  92. How are space probes different than satellites?
  93. What was the name of Earth’s first artificial satellite?
  94. What is a geosynchronous orbit?
  95. What are two important types of satellites?
  96. What is a meteor?
  97. What is the difference between a meteoroid and a meteorite?
  98. Name 3 types of meteorites.
  99. What causes meteor showers?
  100. Which planet has the most visible rings?
  101. A teaspoon of what would weigh more than all of the cars, trucks, and buses on Earth?
  102. What is the next stage (star type) of the sun in about 5 billion years?
  103. What is a measure of a star’s true brightness other than luminosity?
  104. What is the explosion of a large star called?
  105. Which planet has evidence of liquid water in the distant past? None is there today.
  106. Which inner planet’s surface is in constant motion?
  107. What are the most distant objects known?
  108. What is the theory that states that the universe is repeatedly expanding and contracting?
  109. What is a measure of how bright stars appear from Earth?
  110. Why does parallax not work for distant stars (over 1600 ly)?
  111. Which planet has the shortest year of any planet?
  112. Which planet has sulfuric acid clouds?
  113. Before fusion a star-to-be is called what?
  114. What is an Earth-sized object with a mass of the sun?
  115. What is the group of 12 constellations used to locate planets called?
  116. What is the plane of the solar system called?
  117. What is the only space probe to visit Neptune?
  118. What was the name of the 3-man missions that took astronauts to the moon and back?
  119. What was the name of the first human to walk on the moon?
  120. What unit of distance is defined as the average distance between Earth and sun?
  121. Who determined that the universe is expanding?
  122. What baked item can be used to describe the evolution of the universe?
  123. Name an irregular galaxy that can be seen from Earth without a telescope.
  124. What type of galaxy is the Milky Way thought to be?
  125. What is the most common type of galaxy?
  126. What unit of distance is equal to about 9.5 trillion km?
  127. What shape are the orbits of all planets and moons?
  128. How many stars are in the solar system?
  129. What has 1000 times the volume of Earth and is about 1/1000 the volume of the sun?
  130. If two Cepheid variables appear to be the same brightness, how could you tell which was farther away?
  131. If the pitch of a whistling bomb is rising, are you dropping the bomb or is it being dropped on you?
  132. Virtually all the stars we see without a telescope are bound together by gravity in a large group called what?
  133. How is rotation different from revolution?
  134. In which compass direction does Earth rotate?
  135. Which planet looks most like Earth’s moon?
  136. Which planet called the Red Planet?
  137. Which planet has the largest volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons?
  138. Which planet has water in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states?
  139. Which planet has the most moons of any planet?
  140. Name the first Kuiper belt object discovered.
  141. Which planet has an atmosphere of mostly nitrogen?
  142. Which planet has the Great Red Spot?
  143. Name 2 planets that have polar ice caps.
  144. What is a group of stars that form a picture in the sky?
  145. What constellation is the Big Dipper a part of?
  146. What is the average time between peaks of sunspot numbers and solar activity?
  147. What are sometimes seen as pulsars?
  148. In which compass direction do shadows point in the morning?
  149. What time of day are shadows the longest?
  150. What is the longest day of the year called?
  151. What is the apparent magnitude of the dimmest star visible to the naked eye?
  152. What is a device used to determine temperature and composition of stars by their color?
  153. What constellation contains the stars Betelgeuse and Rigel?
  154. What constellation contains Polaris?
  155. Name and briefly describe the process that produces the sun’s energy.
  156. Name one day of the year when the length of day and night are the same.
  157. What is perihelion?
  158. Compared to Earth, the moon’s diameter is:

        a. 1/80   b. 1/6                  c. 1/4                  d. 1/3                  e. 1/2

  1. Huge explosions on the sun’s surface that release large amounts of x-rays are called what?
  2. How many Earth diameters could fit across the sun’s diameter?
  3. A small red giant at the end of its life that has begun to expand its outer layers into space is called what?
  4. Name the smallest planet.
  5. Which planet is farthest from the sun.
  6. Name the planet with the most tilted rotation axis.
  7. Compared to Earth, the moon’s surface gravity is:

        a. 1/80   b. 1/6                  c. 1/4                  d. 1/3                  e. 1/2

  1. What term describes moon phases that are getting brighter and bigger from one night to the next?
  2. What term describes moon phases that are getting dimmer and smaller from one night to the next?
  3. Compare the parallax shift of close and farther-away stars.
  4. How are 90% of all stars grouped on an H-R diagram (name the group)?
  5. Classify stars in the upper left of  the H-R diagram as dim, bright, hot, and/or cool.
  6. Classify stars in the lower right of the H-R diagram as dim, bright, hot, and/or cool.
  7. What is the brightest star in the night sky?
  8. When is high tide highest and low tide lowest?
  9. Name a spiral galaxy that can be seen from Earth without a telescope (other than the Milky Way).
  10. What term that we discussed in class means to go back and forth repeatedly?
  11. What kind of star could be described as oscillating?
  12. When is high tide lowest and low tide is highest?
  13. What phases of the moon are associated with neap tide?
  14. What phases of the moon are associated with spring tide?
  15. Compare the tidal ranges of neap and spring tide.
  16. Which planet has the largest canyon in the solar system, Valles Marineris.
  17. Name the largest moon in the solar system.
  18. Name Uranus’ twin.
  19. Name the largest inner planet.
  20. Name the moon of Uranus that appears to have been smashed apart and crudely reassembled.
  21. Which planet has a thick, carbon dioxide atmosphere?
  22. What theory of the moon’s origin is most widely accepted today?
  23. What is a nebula?
  24. Which is brighter, a star with magnitude 15, 5, or -1?
  25. What do most large galaxies seem to have in their centers?
  26. The distance to nearby Cepheid variables had to be known before the period/brightness relationship could be determined. How were the distances to those nearby Cepheids measured?
  27. Which planet has the Galilean moons?
  28. What is a cool, yet bright type of star?
  29. What is the name of the current North Star?
  30. What object is the remains of a supernova observed in 1054?
  31. Where are the pointer stars that point to Polaris?
  32. What color is hydrogen plasma?
  33. What color is sodium plasma?
  34. How many Earths would it take to balance the mass of the sun?
  35. How long is each complete sunspot cycle?
  36. What is the most widely accepted theory of the origin of the universe?
  37. What is a distance unit used for interstellar distances?
  38. What theory would be supported by an increasing number of blueshifted galaxies in the distant future?

Which diagram shows:      

  1.  
  1.  
  1.  
  1.  
  1.   (diagrams will be on the board, they wouldn't upload to this page)
  2. full moon
  3. spring tide
  4. quarter moon
  5. solar eclipse
  6. crescent moon
  7. lunar eclipse
  8. new moon
  9. neap tide
  10. gibbous moon

Final Exam 2018 Review Game Answers

  1. core
  2. core
  3. photosphere
  4. chromosphere
  5. electromagnetic radiation
  6. waves
  7. same speed - speed of light
  8. crest
  9. wavelength
  10. hot and bright
  11. young cluster still has blue main sequence stars
  12. red giant and a white dwarf
  13. They all explode when they reach 1.4 solar masses.
  14. Near Earth Objects
  15. ice and rock, dirty snowball
  16. cloud of gas and dust surrounding the nucleus
  17. solar wind
  18. blue is farthest, red is closest
  19. Cosmic Microwave Background
  20. Einstein
  21. standard candles
  22. 12
  23. meteorite impact
  24. Earth has weathering and erosion, plate tectonics, oceans, and atmosphere
  25. Moon has slow rotation, no ocean currents, no wind
  26. frequency
  27. frequency goes down
  28. radio waves
  29. parsec
  30. parallax
  31. matter, energy, dark matter, dark energy
  32. dark energy
  33. 4 to 5%
  34. ultraviolet
  35. red light
  36. corona
  37. Sunspots are cooler.
  38. prominences
  39. sun’s magnetic field
  40. granulation
  41. volcanoes pave over craters
  42. tidal forces with Jupiter and other Galilean moons
  43. Oort cloud and Kuiper belt
  44. luminosity
  45. the closer, the larger
  46. Cepheid variables
  47. main sequence
  48. quasars
  49. spiral, barred spiral, elliptical, irregular
  50. asteroid belt
  51. umbra (darker) and penumbra
  52. total lunar
  53. partial solar
  54. moon and sun’s gravity
  55. above the atmosphere
  56. reflectors
  57. refractors
  58. magnifies the image gathered by objective lens or mirror
  59. core
  60. about 1 million
  61. Sagittarius
  62. Lyra
  63. Canis Major
  64. size, composition, rings, moons, orbital spacing
  65. shock wave could start nebula collapse, nebula enriched with heavier elements
  66. gravity
  67. flattened to a disk
  68. photosphere
  69. convective zone
  70. radiative zone
  71. Cepheid variables, main sequence stars, type IA supernovae
  72. see above
  73. they are bright even though red is a dim color
  74. it’s far
  75. mostly by accretion
  76. craters
  77. solar heat and wind drove most light elements from inner solar system
  78. light distortion caused by refraction
  79. determine composition and temperature
  80. aperture
  81. resolution
  82. orbit or revolve
  83. Venus
  84. Venus
  85. Earth
  86. Charon
  87. Mercury
  88. black hole
  89. black dwarf
  90. quasars
  91. blue is brightest, red dimmest
  92. space probes don’t end up in orbit
  93. Sputnik
  94. an orbit above the equator that is at the right distance to revolve in 24 hours
  95. spy, telescopes, weather, land use, communications
  96. What is a meteor?
  97. meteorites are meteoroids that have reached the surface of planet or moon
  98. stony, iron, stony-iron, carbonaceous chondrite
  99. Earth’s orbit intersects orbit of cometary debris
  100. Saturn
  101. neutron star
  102. red giant
  103. absolute magnitude
  104. supernova
  105. Mars
  106. Earth
  107. quasars
  108. oscillating universe
  109. apparent magnitude
  110. shift is too small to measure accurately
  111. Mercury
  112. Venus
  113. protostar
  114. white or black dwarf
  115. Zodiac
  116. ecliptic
  117. Voyager II
  118. Apollo
  119. Neil Armstrong
  120. astronomical unit
  121. Edwin Hubble
  122. raisin bread
  123. Large or Small Magellenic Cloud
  124. barred spiral
  125. irregular
  126. light year
  127. elliptical
  128. 1
  129. Jupiter
  130. The one with the longer cycle is brightest, so it’s farther
  131. You are toast
  132. Milky Way galaxy
  133. rotation is spinning on an axis, revolution is orbiting
  134. towards the east
  135. Mercury
  136. Mars
  137. Mars
  138. Earth
  139. Jupiter
  140. Pluto
  141. Earth
  142. Jupiter
  143. Earth and Mars
  144. constellations
  145. Ursa Major
  146. 11 years
  147. neutron stars
  148. west
  149. just after dawn and just before dusk
  150. summer solstice
  151. +6
  152. spectroscope or spectrometer
  153. Orion
  154. Ursa Minor
  155. fusion happens when 4 H nuclei fuse together to make 1 He nucleus + energy
  156. Autumnal or Vernal Equinox
  157. When a planet is nearest the sun in its elliptical orbit
  158. c
  159. solar flares
  160. 109
  161. planetary nebula
  162. Mercury
  163. Neptune
  164. Uranus
  165. b
  166. waxing
  167. waning
  168. Compare the parallax shift of close and farther-away stars.
  169. main sequence
  170. hot and bright
  171. cool and dim
  172. Sirius
  173. spring tide
  174. Andromeda
  175. oscillate or oscillation
  176. Cepheid variable
  177. neap tide
  178. the quarters
  179. new and full
  180. spring tide is greater
  181. Mars
  182. Ganymede
  183. Neptune
  184. Earth
  185. Miranda
  186. Venus
  187. Giant Impact theory
  188. huge cloud of gas and dust in space
  189. -1
  190. supermassive black hole
  191. parallax
  192. Jupiter
  193. red giant
  194. Polaris
  195. Crab Nebula
  196. bowl of the Big Dipper
  197. red or magenta
  198. yellow
  199. about 330,000
  200. 22 years
  201. Big Bang theory
  202. light year or parsec
  203. Oscillating Universe